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Final numbers (and video) of missed and wrong calls from Game 6 (Heat-Mavericks)

June 14th, 2011 8 comments

We have done another review of the missed and wrong ref calls from Game 6 and placed clips of them in the video below. We ended up revising our preliminary numbers slightly.

We calculated there were 6 wrong or missed calls in the game, an anomaly of a game since we’ve had many more in the other games of this NBA Finals series.

The Mavericks were the beneficiary of one of these wrong calls, resulting in +2 points for them, whereas Miami benefitted from 5 wrong or missed calls, resulting in +7 points. The numbers changed from our previous rough estimate since we moved some of them to our “missed travels” stat.

Again, our caveats still apply: these numbers are approximate to just give an idea on how much of an impact wrong or missed ref calls can have on a game. These estimates don’t take into account a myriad of factors that could increase the point differentials between the teams because of wrong or missed ref calls, like teams getting into the bonus quicker and getting more free throws because of it, players who get into foul trouble quicker and play less minutes as a result, etc.

Our new numbers for missed travels are now 11 (instead of 8): 4 for Dallas, 7 for Miami. On those 4 travels committed by Dallas players, 6 points were scored on those possessions. Miami scored 2 points on the possessions for their 7 travels.

As we stated in our preliminary results the day after the game, we believe the impact of LeBron James‘ hesitancy to drive to the basket (which increases the chances of traveling), good Dallas defense, or both, had a big impact on reducing the number of travels as we saw earlier in the series.

Another reason may be because as playoff games got more intense and the stakes became higher, like in an elimination game as this one was, the game slows down into a half-court game more often.

The refs for this game were Steve Javie, Derrick Stafford, and Scott Foster. It’s clear in the clips below that Foster made more questionable calls than the other refs in his crew.

Wrong calls that benefitted the Mavericks:

  1. The refs get wrong a 24-second violation where they should have stopped play, as the rulebook dictates, rather than have the players continue to play on, which caught Miami off guard. Dallas scored an easy basket as a result.

Wrong calls that benefitted the Heat:

  1. Ref Derrick Stafford calls a blocking foul on Dallas’ Ian Manhinmi when it doesn’t appear he made any contact with Miami’s Dwyane Wade
  2. Ref Scott Foster doesn’t call a foul on Miami’s Mario Chalmers when it’s clear he pushed off on Dallas’ Jose Barea.
  3. The refs won’t call a foul on Miami’s Joel Anthony when it appeared he made body contact with Dallas’ Tyson Chandler.
  4. Ref Scott Foster calls a foul on Dallas’ Jose Barea when it appeared Miami’s Mario Chalmers initiated contact by lowering his shoulder and pushing off with his arm.
  5. Ref Scott Foster calls a foul on Dallas’ Tyson Chandler when it appeared he didn’t make any contact with Miami’s Chris Bosh.

Now that the NBA season is over, we will occasionally post some information or new video we create that you might find interesting. You can just “like” us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter to get alerted when we have posted new stuff for you to checkout.

Heat-Mavericks (Game 5): Missed & wrong calls were just about even (but missed travels weren’t)

June 12th, 2011 10 comments

Below are videos of the missed calls from Thursday’s Game 5. Here’s the breakdown of the missed calls per team:

We counted 6 questionable ref calls that helped Dallas gain an extra 5 points, and 7 ref calls that helped Miami gain 5 points. So it was just about even. (Slightly revised from an earlier count)

But the pattern we continue to see with ref Joe Crawford (known to be “whistle happy”) continued: 7 of these calls solely involved Joe Crawford, with 5 of them being “ticky-tack” fouls, one of them a missed charging violation, and another obvious foul that occurred right in front of him that he failed to catch..

We reiterate that these numbers are approximate, and don’t take into account the myriad of variables that wrong or missed calls can have on a team’s point production or points they give up, like players getting in foul trouble earlier, teams put into the “bonus” faster, etc. Since there could be many other variables, if you’re inclined to do it, feel free to come up with your own calculations based on the work we’ve done showing the questionable calls and no-calls.

These videos don’t include missed travels, but we hope that we’ll have enough time to create a separate video of those travels before Game 6 on Sunday night.

But we can tell you the numbers for missed travels were much different than what we’ve seen from previous games — Dallas had more than Miami, and scored more points on those possessions. Part of the reason is because of LeBron James‘ much publicized reluctance to drive to the basket, but also because of Dirk Nowitzki putting the ball on the floor more.

There were approximately 28 missed travels in this game (so you can understand why it takes awhile to break down a game and clip out these plays), and Dallas had a large advantage in points because of them, which was also rare in this series. Preliminarily, the points we counted were 22-13, but we’ll want to confirm those with an additional review of the plays.

Since we’ll probably be short on time, we’ll try to create a video with just the most important missed travels where points were scored on those possessions, if we can even get that out, and confirm the raw number of travels and point differential after a second review of these plays. If we can’t do it before Game 6, then we’ll just move on and focus on our analysis for Game 6.

Here’s the video of missed/wrong calls that helped the Mavericks (down the page is the video of missed/wrong calls that helped the Heat):

1st quarter

  1. Ref Joe Crawford will call a ticky-tack foul on Miami’s Joel Anthony involving Dirk Nowitzki.

2nd quarter

  1. Ref Joe Crawford will call a ticky-tack foul on Miami’s Dwyane Wade involving Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki

3rd quarter

  1. Ref Mike Callahan will call a foul on Miami’s Juwan Howard after Dallas’ Ian Mahinmi sells contact very well.
  2. Ref Joe Crawford doesn’t call a foul on Dallas’ Jason Kidd after hitting Miami’s LeBron James on the wrist.

4th quarter

  1. Ref Joe Crawford will call a foul on Miami’s Mario Chalmers involving Dallas’ Jose Barea that doesn’t appear justified.
  2. The refs don’t call a foul on Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki involving Miami’s Dwyane Wade.

Here’s the video of missed/wrong calls that helped the Heat:

1st quarter

  1. Ref Joe Crawford will incorrectly call a blocking violation on Dallas’ Brian Cardinal involving Miami’s Dwyane Wade.

2nd quarter

  1. Ref Joe Crawford will call a foul on Dallas’ Jose Barea after negligible contact with Miami’s Mario Chalmers. He should have just let it go.

3rd quarter

  1. No violation will be called on Miami’s Joel Anthony for having a forearm with a bent elbow in the back of Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki outside the lower defensive box
  2. No violation will be called on Miami’s Mario Chalmers for an apparent loose ball foul on Dallas’ Jason Terry.
  3. Ref Joe Crawford will call a ticky-tack foul on Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki involving Miami’s Joel Anthony.

4th quarter

  1. The refs arguably should have called a flagrant foul on Miami’s Juwan Howard after fouling Dallas’ DeShawn Stevenson.
  2. The refs missed a shooting foul from Miami’s LeBron James on Dallas’ Shawn Marion .

Heat-Mavericks Game 3 videos: wrong calls & no-calls (missed travels video later)

June 7th, 2011 18 comments

Below are the first two videos that feature the wrong and missed calls from Game 3 of the NBA Finals. These videos exclude the missed travels, which we are working on now, as well as a video of those calls we believe the refs got right that some people might have questioned.

Our new way of breaking up one large video into several smaller videos is taking longer than we anticipated, so thanks for your patience. We’ll continue to experiment on getting good content out on a timely basis.

In the first video, we have 4 clips of wrong or missed ref calls that benefitted Miami (in our last post we had stated 5, but have allocated one of those to Dallas since). These four calls resulted in 4 points being scored, approximately, by Miami during these possessions.

It wasn’t a good night for ref Scott Foster, who had 6 questionable foul calls, and Derrick Stafford, who had four. Usually you might get one ref who calls an inordinate amount of ticky-tack calls, but in this game, we had two (Foster and Stafford).

Below each video is a breakdown of all the clips in the video.

In the first video, we really appreciate the commentary that analyst Jeff Van Gundy provides in the last clip regarding players who flop on every play, and how he can’t understand how fellow commentators (Mark Jackson, Reggie Miller, just to name a few) think players SHOULD flop or sell calls. Bravo Van Gundy!

  1. The refs miss an offensive 3-second violation against Miami’s Chris Bosh.
  2. Ref Scott Foster will call a touch foul on Dallas’ Ian Mahinmi as Miami’s Udonis Haslem falls out out of bounds.
  3. The refs don’t call a foul on Miami’s Mario Chalmers when he arguably runs into Dallas’ Tyson Chandler.
  4. Ref Derrick Stafford will call a loose ball foul on Dallas’ Jason Kidd when it appeared Miami’s Dwyane Wade flopped.

In the second video (below) are 13 wrong or missed calls that benefitted Dallas (instead of 12, like we posted earlier today). Thirteen is a pretty wide disparity to the four that were missed to Miami’s advantage. However, it only resulted (roughly calculated) in 5 direct points that helped Dallas.

  1. Ref Scott Foster calls a foul on Miami’s Joel Anthony when it didn’t look like he made contact with Dallas’ Jason Terry.
  2. Ref Dan Crawford calls a questionable foul on Miami’s Mario Chalmers involving Dallas’ Jose Barea.
  3. Ref Derrick Stafford calls a foul on Miami’s LeBron James after Dallas’ DeShawn Stevenson flopped.
  4. Ref Dan Crawford calls a foul on Miami’s Mike Miller when it didn’t appear he hit Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki.
  5. Ref Derrick Stafford calls a foul on Miami’s Mike Miller as he defends Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki.
  6. Ref Dan Crawford doesn’t call a foul on Dallas’ Tyson Chandler when he puts his leg in Miami’s LeBron James‘ path, making him trip.
  7. Ref Derrick Stafford calls a foul on Miami’s Mike Bibby when there wasn’t much contact, if any, with Dallas’ Jose Barea.
  8. Ref Scott Foster calls a foul on Miami’s Mike Bibby when Dallas’ Jose Barea slips and falls.
  9. Ref Scott Foster calls a loose ball foul on Miami’s Udonis Haslem when it didn’t look like he made any contact.
  10. Ref Scott Foster calls a loose ball foul on Miami’s Udonis Haslem when it didn’t look like he made much, if any, contact with Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki.
  11. The refs miss a foul from Dallas’ Jason Kidd on Miami’s LeBron James when Kidd lightly hits James’ arm, making him lose control of the ball while everyone thought James lost the ball on his own and traveled.
  12. Ref Scott Foster calls a loose ball foul on Miami’s Udonis Haslem (again) when it didn’t look like he made much, if any, contact with Dallas’ Tyson Chandler.
  13. Ref Derrick Stafford makes a no-call when Dallas’ Shawn Marion appears to foul Miami’s LeBron James.

TopFlops update: playoff edition

June 5th, 2011 3 comments

Our sister site TopFlops.com has just published a video of some of the best “flops” in the playoffs since May 13th. Below the video is a list of the players who are featured in the video.

  1. 0:04 – Oklahoma City’s Thabo Sefolosha
  2. 0:26 – Dallas’ Jose Barea
  3. 0:52 – Chicago’s Omer Asik
  4. 1:14 – Chicago’s Omer Asik (again)
  5. 1:42 – Dallas’ Jose Barea
  6. 2:14 – Dallas’ DeShawn Stevenson
  7. 2:23 – Dallas’ DeShawn Stevenson (again)
  8. 3:12 – Dallas’ DeShawn Stevenson (again)
  9. 3:51 – Dallas’ DeShawn Stevenson (again)
  10. 3:57 – Dallas’ DeShawn Stevenson (again)
  11. 4:08 – OKC’s James Harden (with funny commentary from analyst Jeff Van Gundy)
  12. 5:55 – Miami’s Mario Chalmers
  13. 6:13 – Miami’s LeBron James
  14. 6:59 – Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki
  15. 7:26 – Oklahoma City’s Eric Maynor
  16. 7:55 – Miami’s LeBron James (with funny commentary from analyst Reggie Miller)
  17. 9:00 – Miami’s Mario Chalmers
  18. 9:15 – Miami’s Dwyane Wade

Dallas-Miami (NBA Finals Game 1): Both halves reviewed. Not equal for Mavs. Refs miss 5 LeBron travels

June 2nd, 2011 9 comments

As some of you may have seen this morning, YouTube took down our video from yesterday that had many of the ref calls we reviewed from the 2nd half of Game 1 of the NBA Finals. There are literally thousands, if not hundreds of thousands, of videos on YouTube that have NBA footage in them, but they haven’t been taken down. You’ve got to think with this action the NBA may be noticing how much RefCalls.com is revealing of their game, and they may have a problem with it. Oh well. Whatever.

In the meantime, we have finished creating a new video that has most of the ref calls from the 1st half of Tuesday’s game in the video below. We’ve also appended to the video those calls from the 2nd half from the video taken down this morning, and included a couple of new calls we found, and updated them in the text description below the video.

Probably one of the most glaring stats we found is that LeBron James traveled 5 times with no call from the refs. In the video below, they are at the following time markers: 1:28, 1:59, 7:38, 13:33, and 14:23. In comparison, the refs only missed one Dirk Nowitzki traveling violation.

Here’s a summary of the wrong calls that affected both teams throughout the entire game:

Wrong calls/no-calls that penalized Dallas: 14
Wrong calls/no-calls that penalized Miami: 10

However, as we stated yesterday, not all wrong calls/no-calls are created equal. Those that occur late in the game when the game is in the balance that result in a field goal or free throws are more impactful than others. If you’re a Dallas fan, in addition to the 5 missed travels by LeBron James, you can’t be happy about the calls in the 2nd half (#13, 14, and #16 below). If you’re a Miami fan, you won’t like #12 in the 2nd half. That’s a 3-to-1 disparity in crunch time. Not good for Mav fans.

Another thing is clear: Ref Bill Kennedy called more ticky-tack fouls (5) than the other refs officiating this game, with 4 being called against Dallas players. That’s a tendency to remember for future games, if Kennedy is allowed to ref another Finals game this post-season.

Below is a breakdown of the clips in the video. If you don’t see a clip of a call that you had questions about, it’s most likely because we agreed with the refs’ assessment. There’s just too many questionable calls to include in this video every ref call, including those they got right, and get this video out in a timely manner.

1st half

  1. Ref Mike Callahan will incorrectly call a foul on Miami’s Dwyane Wade when it looked like he got “all ball” in stripping Dallas’ Shawn Marion.
  2. Ref Bill Kennedy will fail to call a defensive 3-second violation on Dallas’ Jason Kidd when he stayed in the lane longer than 3 seconds and wasn’t actively guarding anyone.
  3. The refs will miss a moving screen that Miami’s Chris Bosh applies on Dallas’ DeShawn Stevenson.
  4. Ref Mike Callahan calls a foul on Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki when it looks like the contact with Miami’s LeBron James was negligible and was equally shared between both players. Should have been a no-call.
  5. The refs will miss a traveling violation by Miami’s LeBron James.
  6. The refs will miss a traveling violation on Miami’s LeBron James as well as charging call into Dallas’ Tyson Chandler.
  7. The refs miss a moving screen on Dallas’ Chris Bosh applied on Dallas’ Jason Kidd.
  8. Ref Bill Kennedy will incorrectly call a foul on Miami’s Mike Bibby, but it doesn’t appear he touches Dallas’ Jason Terry. A secondary defender, Miami’s Chris Bosh, doesn’t appear to make contact with Terry either.
  9. The refs will call a foul on Miami’s LeBron James, which may be legitimate, but Dallas’ Jason Terry will also hit James in the face with his off-hand. Probably best to make it a double foul since Terry was culpable, too.
  10. The refs make the correct no-call when Dallas’ Jose Barea tries to sell a call against Miami’s LeBron James.
  11. The refs fail to call a foul on Miami’s Mike Miller for dislodging Dallas’ Dirk Nowtizki by pushing him in the back to dislodge him, along with using a forearm in the back with a bent elbow outside the lower defensive box.
  12. The refs will call a foul on Dallas’ Brendan Haywood when it’s clear that Miami’s Chris Bosh flopped to draw a loose ball foul. Bad call.
  13. The refs will miss Miami’s Mike Miller applying a forearm with a bent elbow outside the lower defensive box on Dallas’ Shawn Marion.

2nd half

  1. Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki lifts his pivot foot before he releases the ball on the dribble. However, his shot is blocked, and looks like a legit block, so Dallas didn’t score on this possession anyway.
  2. Dallas’ Brendan Haywood is correctly called for a blocking foul on Miami’s Dwyane Wade.
  3. The refs will miss a traveling violation on Miami’s LeBron James.
  4. Dallas’ Brendan Haywood lifts his pivot foot before releasing the ball. This was a missed travel. Haywood will get fouled, and will go on to make 1 of 2 free throws.
  5. It looked like Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki travels and goes on to score, but there is no call.
  6. Miami coach Erik Spoelstra comes on to the court during play and walks beyond the hash mark, but the refs don’t warn him. Not a big deal, but kind of funny.
  7. Ref Bill Kennedy, who is the ref farthest away from the play, calls a loose ball foul on Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki when it didn’t appear there was any contact, and none of the other refs made the signal.
  8. Ref Steve Javie incorrectly calls a foul on Dallas’ Tyson Chandler when Miami’s Udonis Haslem had his arm wrapped around Chandler’s body trying to get around him.
  9. Ref Bill Kennedy calls a ticky-tack foul on Dallas’ Deshawn Stevenson when there is incidental contact between himself and Miami’s Udonis Haslem.
  10. Ref Bill Kennedy calls a ticky-tack foul on Miami’s Mike Miller when he doesn’t make any contact on Dallas’ Shawn Marion..
  11. Ref Steve Javie correctly calls a foul on Miami’s LeBron James, who runs into Dallas’ Tyson Chandler.
  12. Ref Mike Callahan misses a forearm with a bent elbow on Dallas’ Shawn Marion from Miami’s Mike Miller outside the lower defensive box, followed by Marion bulling into Miller, but Callahan calling the foul on Miller. Marion’s basket and penalty free throw cuts the Miami lead to 77-73 with 3:53 remaining.
  13. Ref Mike Callahan incorrectly calls a foul on Dallas’ Dirk Nowitzki, who appeared to strip the ball clean from Miami’s Chris Bosh. Bosh would make two free throws to extend Miami’s lead to 79-73 with 3:44 remaining.
  14. The refs miss Miami’s LeBron James travel when he drives to the basket for a dunk, and ref Bill Kennedy calls a questionable foul on Dallas’ Shawn Marion, who appeared to have light and inadvertent contact on James’ head (but it shouldn’t have even reached that point since the travel was missed). The basket and penalty free throw by James extends the lead to 85-75 with 2:47 remaining.
  15. The refs miss Miami’s LeBron James slide his pivot foot, which is a traveling violation, and then will miss Dallas’ Shawn Marion making contact with James’ head, but no foul is called. The refs call a 24-second violation on Miami instead.
  16. Ref Bill Kennedy calls a ticky-tack foul on Dallas’ Jason Terry involving Miami’s Mario Chalmers, who appeared to flop on very little contact. Chalmers would make both free throws to extend Miami’s lead to 87-79 with 1:22 remaining.

Missed travels from Game 3 & 4 of Bulls-Heat series

May 26th, 2011 7 comments

You may recall how we haven’t covered yet most of the missed travels from Games 3 & 4 of the Chicago-Miami series simply because there were so many of them, there’s not enough time to include them in each game’s video summary before needing to move on to the next game.

However, we’ve decided to feature those missed travels in a separate video, which is below. As you can imagine, it’s very time-consuming to break them down in slow-motion (about 3-4 times longer), but it’s essential to prove the point.

We’ll work on the final game of the Dallas-OKC series next, but wanted to get this video out first before Game 5 of tonight’s Bulls-Heat game. We also imagine there are lots of Dallas fans who are interested in seeing what their next opponent does from a traveling perspective that the refs don’t call.

Here’s a summary of the travels in the video above (7 in Game 3, 10 in Game 4):

LeBron James – 6
Derrick Rose – 6
Dwyane Wade – 2
Chris Bosh – 2
Joakim Noah – 1

Game 3:

  • 0:07 – Miami’s LeBron James
  • 0:26 – Chicago’s Joakim Noah
  • 0:59 – Chicago’s Derrick Rose
  • 2:15 – Chicago’s Derrick Rose
  • 2:35 – Miami’s Chris Bosh
  • 3:17 – Miami’s LeBron James
  • 3:46 – Chicago’s Derrick Rose

Game 4

  • 4:20 – Chicago’s Derrick Rose (includes a wrong foul call by ref Bennett Salvatore on Miami’s Mario Chalmers
  • 5:53 – Miami’s Dwyane Wade
  • 6:20 – Chicago’s Derrick Rose
  • 7:05 – Miami’s LeBron James
  • 7:57 – Miami’s LeBron James
  • 8:22 – Miami’s Dwyane Wade
  • 8:49 – Chicago’s Derrick Rose
  • 9:11 – Miami’s Chris Bosh
  • 9:41 – Miami’s LeBron James
  • 10:14 – Miami’s LeBron James

Note: we cut down the number we originally had (20+) to 17 of the more obvious travels.

Bulls-Heat (Game 3): So many calls, and so little time to capture them all

May 23rd, 2011 5 comments

There were so many calls and no-calls to review from last night’s Chicago-Miami game, it took longer than normal to go through them all. For example, we counted at least 10 travels that were missed by the refs (due to frequent violators like Derrick Rose, LeBron James and Dwayne Wade playing in the same game), but because it takes so much time to edit and include them in a video, we might create a separate video later that just focuses on those travels.

In the meantime, here are most of the non-traveling related calls and no-calls we found that were significant, or interesting.

In this video, you’ll see the following:

  • Ref Ron Garretson correctly calls back an inbounds pass from Dwyane Wade since the ball accidentally grazed Garretson’s fingers resulting in a turnover for the Heat. But Garretson should have called a foul on Taj Gibson for extending part of his body over the boundary line, which isn’t allowed according to the rulebook.
  • Ref Ron Garretson calls a ticky-tack foul on Chicago’s Carlos Boozer in defending Miami’s Chris Bosh.
  • Chicago’s Keith Bogans is fouled by Miami’s Dwayne Wade as Bogans goes into his shooting motion (which is the correct call), but Bogans arguably traveled, which was missed.
  • Chicago’s Carlos Boozer uses elbow to clear out space on Miami’s Udonis Haslem, but the refs didn’t call an offensive foul on Boozer.
  • Ref Steve Javie calls a foul on Chicago’s Ronnie Brewer when it looked like Miami’s Mario Chalmers was just jumping into the air to avoid colliding into his teammate, or was flopping. Wrong call by Javie.
  • Chicago’s Carlos Boozer seems to set an illegal screen on Miami’s Mike Miller, but no foul was called.
  • Miami’s Ronnie Brewer will fall hard on Miami’s Mike Miller in the scramble for a loose ball, but no foul is called.
  • Ref Mike Callahan will wrongly call an offensive charge against Chicago’s Carlos Boozer when he drives to the basket and contact is made with Miami’s Udonis Haslem, even though one of Haslem’s feet was in the restricted area.
  • Ref Ron Garretson calls a foul on Chicago’s Kyle Korver when it looks like Korver got “all ball” on a block of Miami’s LeBron James.
  • The refs will miss a shooting foul from Miami’s Mike Bibby on Chicago’s Joakim Noah.
  • Ref Steve Javie will correctly call an offensive foul on Chicago’s Luol Deng, but with the help of a sell/flop from Miami’s LeBron James.
  • Ref Ron Garretson will incorrectly call a moving screen on Chicago’s Joakim Noah when it appeared he was established before Miami’s Mike Bibby ran into him.
  • Ref Ron Garretson will call a ticky-tack foul on Miami’s Chris Bosh involving Chicago’s Carlos Boozer.

Celtics-Heat (Game 2): Tough calls hard to judge at real speed examined

May 4th, 2011 4 comments

Last night’s Boston-Miami game had more consequential calls and no-calls than Memphis-Oklahoma City, which wasn’t as close until the end, so we’ll focus on some of the calls from that game that were difficult to assess at real speed.

The play that Dwyane Wade had with his “crossover” in front of Kevin Garnett for a bucket looked spectacular and got everyone excited in the crowd and on the bench. It almost looked too good to be true at the time, making you ask, “How did he do that?”

Well, we slowed down the tape, and like several calls we’ve examined, it was a travel based on how the rules are written (check out this piece for a thorough analysis on why we think plays like this are traveling — scroll down to section 1 in bold font). It makes sense since he went all the way from the “elbow” of the lane, faked out Garnett, and got to the rim. Is that really possible to do in just two steps? Our analysis shows that it isn’t if you follow the letter of the rule book.

We’ve also included a couple of other calls that were pretty difficult to assess at real speed.